If you are interested in a career in Aquaculture we have a number of training providers listed
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The Social and Community Effects of Salmon Farming and Rearing
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NZIER report on the economic contribution of marine farming in the Marlborough region
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Provision of ecological and ecosystem services by mussel farming in the Marlborough Sounds
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Healthy Coastal Ecosystems
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THE BLUE MUSSEL PROJECT: Research into a solution to the oversettlement of blue mussels.
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90 MILE BEACH PROJECT: Research to assess the quality and viability of spat before it leaves Kaitaia.
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MARINE FARM COMPLIANCE: Marine farm compliance audit partnership programme
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Provision of ecological and ecosystem services by mussel farming in the Marlborough Sounds;A literature review in context of the state of the environment pre- and post-mussel farming

The Marine Farming Association Inc. (MFA) commissioned the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) to review and summarise exisiting literature on the ecological services (EcolS - services that benefit the marine ecosystem) and ecosystem services (ES - services that benefit human wellbeing) provided by mussel farming in the Pelorus and Queen Charlotte Sounds, Marlborough, New Zealand.


This review was prompted by two emergent issues:

(1) the growing international recognition that shellfish aquaculture can contribute toward the resilience of coastal ecosystems rather than be viewed solely as detrimental to the environment or causing adverse environmental impacts and

(2) the need to inform the emerging chapter on aquaculture in the Marlborough Environment Plan (MEP) that will govern the rules around Marlborough’s marine farming for the next ten years and the process of consent renewal for 60% of farms by 2025.


The purpose of this report is to collate and review information concerning the provision of EcolS and ES provided by mussel aquaculture in the context of the Marlborough Sounds’ State of Environment (SOE). It is important to benchmark the SOE for understanding the present-day services of mussel farming in the sounds.


This review was based on available published literature, NIWA reports on mussel farming in the area, compliance reports provided by MFA, and grey literature from internet searches. No new empirical data has been collected for this review. We reviewed the SOE of the Marlborough Sounds before (ca. <1970) and after mussel farming started and, in this context considered service provision within the four broad categories:

(1) Regulating, which encompasses services that regulate the environment such as improving water quality through sequestering suspended particulates, nitrogen and carbon;

(2) Habitat and supporting, which includes physical creation of habitats, habitat provision for species and maintaining diversity and

(3) Provisioning, meaning the production of food, water or other goods and

(4) Cultural

In this review, we address the first three categories and referred to cultural aspects where necessary and included fish, seabirds and marine mammals.

Prepared for Marine Farming Association

Prepared by Jeanie Stenton-Dozey & Niall Broekhuizen
February 2019

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